Founded in 1951 under the sponsorship of Dwight D. Eisenhower, during his tenure as president of Columbia University, the Institute of War and Peace Studies (SIWPS) was renamed the Saltzman Institute of War and Peace Studies (SIWPS) in March 2003. Created to promote understanding of the "disastrous consequences of war upon man's spiritual, intellectual, and material progress," the institute has become one of the leading research centers on international relations in the United States. Its researchers have probed the political, military, historical, legal, economic, moral, psychological, and philosophical dimensions of international relations; and contributed to the general discourse by authoring articles in major journals, discussing current issues with officials and journalists, serving as consultants to government departments and agencies, and testifying before congressional committees. The institute itself has no formal teaching program; rather, its members conduct a wide variety of instructional activities through the Political Science Department and the School of International and Public Affairs (SIPA) at Columbia.