Despite the historical trend towards trade liberalization, states have increasingly implemented protectionist trade policies, often to induce some political change. This report analyzed historical case studies of trade conflict since the 1940s, to distill insights regarding the introduction, evolution, and development of trade weaponization. Said insights are subsequently applied to present-day conflicts, to better understand this trend’s continued evolution in geopolitics. Countries weaponize trade tools to impose economic pressure on a target, inducing a change in trade patterns in service of political or broadly-economic objectives. If the target country retaliates by also weaponizing trade, the conflict potentially escalates into a trade war. To understand the motives underlying trade wars, the Capstone team organized their case studies by the following variables: country leadership, administratively-led vs. public-led policies, political and geo-strategic goals vs. economic concerns, and implications for technical development. Other variables considered for an analysis of the results include: within vs. across alliances, symmetric vs. asymmetric economic/political/military capabilities. The team considered trade weaponization within the institutional context of international trade organizations and regimes, namely the WTO and GATT. With these variables, the Capstone team aimed to specify the factors that provided the winners with an upper hand, thereby creating a foundation for the team to assess ongoing and future trade wars.