As the Joint United Nations-African Union Peacekeeping Mission (UNAMID) in Darfur comes to a close, significant humanitarian issues remain unresolved. Two million internally displaced people in Sudan are still vulnerable, intercommunal conflicts are on the rise, gender-based violence and child abuse persist. Despite many concerns, all military support provided by the mission will also end in the midst of a volatile political transition during which the interim government, the Sovereign Council, has promised to rule until a general election in 2022.  

The International Peace Institute (IPI) has asked the Columbia SIPA Capstone team to conduct research on alternative mechanisms that the United Nations, domestic and international NGOs and civil society organizations (CSOs) can use to effectively monitor, investigate, and report on human rights violations, and in addition protect civilians without a formal peacekeeping mission. For the report, the team provided a specific set of recommendations to the UN as well as noted the applicability and limitations of the identified mechanisms for future peacekeeping transitions.   

Their recommendations cover human rights monitoring through a Special Political Mission (SPM), the continuation of support by the UN to help build the capacity of Sudan’s police forces and the Sudanese National Human Rights Commission, application of unarmed civilian protection (UCP), use of Integrated Analysis and Information Hubs to continue to have UN early warning capabilities identifying violent threats to civilians, and a global compact in cooperation with the Peacebuilding Commission (PBC) for more efficient nation building.