This report presented the US Cyber Command with a cross-case study based on the examination of China’s, Russia’s, Iran’s and the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea’s history, geography, politics, economy, religion and philosophy in order to understand how each differing strategic culture guides the state’s motivations and behaviors. This included each country’s employment of non-state actors and proxies, legal framework, and military-civilian relations. The strategic culture lens provided a deeper understanding of each state’s cyberwarfare strategies. By examining how current factors are shaping the most likely future trajectory and what the most dangerous trajectory could look like, the team provided lessons that the US can draw upon for its own strategic formulations.
The team conducted literature and internet reviews to identify the influencing factors for each country’s strategic cultures and current cyber capabilities. Additionally, the team conducted in- person and phone interviews with field experts to assist in the understanding of the issues, concepts, and processes to formulate the most relevant product for the client.